In Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, the Ottoman Empire was established by a few Turk tribes. The empire became one of the most powerful states in the period of the 15th and 16th centuries. The empire reigned over a wide span of 600 years and came to an end in 1922. The Turkish Republic then took over the kingdom and distinct states of the Middle East and Europe. When the empire was at its peak, it was spread across most south-east Europe to the Balkan region, gates of Vienna, Hungary, a few parts of Ukraine, and Greece. It was also present in the Middle East in present-day Iraq, Israel, Syria, Egypt, and Algeria in the west and North Africa. The empire also had significant chunks of the Arabian Peninsula under its realm. The term Ottoman comes from the monarch’s epithet came from Osman Ⅰ. He was the Turk chief who founded the dynasty back in 1300.
When the empire was in its earliest stages of expanding, the Turkish warriors practicing the Islam religion were led by the Ottomans. They were given the title of Ghazi, which translates to ‘a raider’. These warriors were fighting the timid empire of Byzantium. The founder of the dynasty Osman Ⅰ and his ancestors belonged to the Kayi tribe, and they came to Anatolia with numerous Turk nomads. After fighting the Christians in Byzantium, the Ghazis fought intensively with Mongols. The nomads that came to Anatolia, primarily from Central Asia, recognized themselves as the Seljuq Dynasty in Mesopotamia and Iran. By the end of the 11th century, they successfully captured central and eastern Anatolia along with Byzantium in the battle of Manzikert, which occurred in 1071. In the latter half of the 12th century, Mongols were able to invade Anatolia after the endowment of the Il-Khanid Empire in present-day Iraq and Iran.
After The Defeat From Mongols
Once their ever-growing enemy Mongols defeated them, Osman was seen as the prince and ambassador of border principality and ended up as a commander for the remaining Ghazis around the Byzantium area. The Ottomans are seen to be the dominant Muslim rulers who fought with Byzantines throughout their reign. The empire was able to appeal to a vast section of nomads that were just pointlessly roaming in the different parts of the Middle East and joining the forces; they could get a good livelihood. There was also a factor playing behind the scenes of these nomads getting into the Ottoman Empire. It was the religious desire and needed to expand Islam to different parts of the world. The factors that benefited the Ottomans while fighting Byzantines are primarily their decay in the frontier forces and an eruption in their discontent in terms of economics, society, and religion.
Restoration Of Ottoman Empire
Along the way, Tamerlane was building a vast empire dubbed as the Tatar Empire in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, and Central Asia. Simultaneously, Bayezid was moving ahead at a swift pace to conquer different regions and ended up attracting the attention of Timur. This Tatar Empire king was taken aback when he was on the crusade of invading India and halted due to the increasing number of attacks by Bayezid on the western side. Several Turks came to his shelter when Bayezid took their kingdoms. Timur decided to put an end to it and invaded Anatolia in 1402. His purpose was nothing to do with Asia Minor but to add a protective shield to his kingdom boundaries on the west. This was the start of the restoration of the lost Ottoman Empire.